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Race Week – Freshen up with the Pros

The week before a key race such as an ironman can be testing. With all of the hard work done, often we’re at a bit of a loss as to what to do. We know we are no longer in “training..” we know we should somehow start to feel “fresh,” but at the same time our hormones and sleep patterns can get pretty out of whack! Throw in a time zone difference, some last minute work deadlines and interstate travel and it’s easy to lose track of the main goal for the week – getting ready to race!

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The week before a key race such as an ironman can be testing. With all of the hard work done, often we’re at a bit of a loss as to what to do. We know we are no longer in “training..” we know we should somehow start to feel “fresh,” but at the same time our hormones and sleep patterns can get pretty out of whack! Throw in a time zone difference, some last minute work deadlines and interstate travel and it’s easy to lose track of the main goal for the week – getting ready to race!

Trizone has had a chance to pick the brains of a couple of the pre-race favourites from the mens field for Ironman Western Australia Pete Jacobs and previous winner Patrick Vernay. We take a look at what works for the guys at the sharp end of the stick in terms of race week eating, training and sharpening up.

Pete Jacobs keen on keeping it simple: fresh is best. In the week leading up to the race, Jacobs takes a “less is more” approach to training, ensuring that he’s well rested and ready to rock and roll come race day. The week consists of organising a couple of shorter swims and bike sessions around travelling and race week commitments. The running volume is backed off considerably – possibly more so than for many age-group athletes even! With a race on Sunday, Jacobs might have one key run session on Thursday, consisting of:

  • Dynamic stretching warm-up
  • 3k at base pace
  • 2k at half marathon pace
  • 1.6k at 10k pace
  • 2k cool down at base pace

With the last “long run” on the Sunday week before the race, this is obviously a pretty light week of training, focused on form, technique and mental preparation.

Patrick Vernay also has some thoughts on when works best for his final sessions:

“I always take a total rest day on the Friday.. two days after a training day the body is normally pretty tired, so I completely rest on the Friday.. then go through each sport on the day before the race.”

This is a pretty standard format for many athletes – going through the motions of each sport on race day eve can help to visualise how the race will play out, as well as encourage blood flow and sport specific muscle activation. This is a day about preparation both mentally and physically.

Vernay continues:

On Saturday I spend some time in each sport.. maybe.. an hour on the bike.. just enough in each sport to freshen up and tick it over.

The other key aspect of race week is nutrition. With a reduced training volume, an athletes overall caloric intake should be reduced, while at the same time ensuring that the body is topped up and glycogen stores are fully replenished by race day. Again, for the pros, keeping it simple is key. PJ usually opts for a simple diet, sticking to what he knows. Options include brown rice, tuna, almonds, and simple foods.

Overall, the take home message for athletes of all levels is keep it simple, rest up, minimise external stressors and relax. As illustrated by the pros, there’s no magical formula, but keeping things familiar and allowing the body to totally rest is key. The race generally can’t be won through a great race preparation, but it can definitely be lost – smart and simple planning and execution is sure to see you hit the course in fine form!

 

Karl is a keen age group triathlete who races more than he trains. Good life balance! Karl works in the media industry in Australia and is passionate about the sport of triathlon.

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How to Tackle Hills on a Triathlon Bike (TT)

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For many newbie triathletes, climbing can represent one of the greatest challenges when it comes to riding. Once that road in front of you starts to rise, it can be a struggle to maintain rhythm and remain comfortable. Apart from clocking up serious hours riding on mountainous roads (which of course is great for building bike strength), I’ve put together a few pointers that should make you faster and more efficient when riding up hills. When climbing, it is important to be smart about the amount of energy you expend and to choose the best position on the bike relative to your terrain.

There are three climbing positions that you can adopt on the bike. Each position comes with its own pros and cons, so it is important to understand when to adopt which position and why.

Aero bars

If it’s a short climb or it has a shallow incline, it’ll likely pay to stay on the aero bars for as long as possible. While racing, a general rule is that the more time you can stay in the aero position, the faster you will be over the duration of the ride.

Managing exertion

Keeping your power output on the bike as stable as possible is usually the best way to approach the bike leg. Big spikes in power, caused when climbing or pedalling out of tight corners, is the easiest way to increase leg fatigue. When climbing during races, you should only increase your power output by at most 10 percent compared to riding on the flat. Using a power meter on your bike is by far the best way to monitor how much power you’re putting out during any stage of a race. It’ll help you keep your effort at a steady rate. Alternately, a heart rate monitor is another great tool that’ll help you keep your effort as even as possible – particularly when climbing.

Seated climbing

As the road starts to get steeper, the aero benefits of remaining in an aero position become negligible. It’s time to sit up and put the power down. Climbing while seated should be adopted when the climb you face is such that you feel you need to break from the aero position – but not so steep that you feel you need to get out of the saddle. Staying seated while climbing will also help keep your heart rate lower than when standing. This means you’ll be using less energy.

Cadence

For most triathletes, a cadence of between 80-to-95 RPM is ideal for racing. Once you hit a climb, try to keep your cadence roughly the same as you employ on the flat. Cadence is similar to power output in that you should aim to keep it as consistent as possible. If you are standing to climb and are pushing hard with a low cadence, the level of muscular fatigue will increase. Alternately, climbing while out of the saddle with a cadence of 110 RPM or more will see your heart rate skyrocket.

Gearing

When I am setting up my bike for a major race, I always take a good look at the course profile a few weeks out from the event. I make sure my bike is rocking a rear cassette that I know will give me a good range of gearing options for that particular course profile. For example, if it’s a hilly course that’ll require a lot of climbing, I fit a rear cluster of 11/25 to ensure that I have the gears I need to maintain a good cadence through the climbs.

Standing – out of the saddle

When racing, it’s important to remain as aerodynamic as possible. However, on steeper climbs you will find that you are not able to generate the power needed down on the aero bars. Standing up on the pedals will give you more power as you’re using your body weight to put power into the cranks. This comes at a cost, though. Standing while you pedal will lead to increased heart rate as you’re employing more of your upper body to generate power. Climbing out of the saddle should be saved for mountain goat terrain.

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Polarised to Pyramidal Training Intensity Distribution: The Principle of Specificity is Key

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A new blog post has been a long time coming (we’ve been busy!; me doing some training, work and the addition of a little girl and Prof writing a book), and with Ironman NZ behind us for another year, it’s given me the chance to write something I’ve been wanting to express for some time.

I love a bit of social media interaction. Whilst I’m not the most vocal, I do enjoy keeping an eye on the latest hot topics in the world of endurance sports and Ironman Triathlon. Over the past few months or so, “polarized training” has become a real buzz word in the triathlon training world. Particularly Ironman. But is this really the best way to train when considering an event like Ironman? Here is a spin on it from Plews and Prof.

Training intensity distribution and polarised training

When we refer to training intensity distribution (TID), we are talking about how much of the time we spend in low, moderate and high training intensity zones.

Figure 1: Training zone demarcation using the classic three zone model.

Figure 1 shows a great illustration of the zones we’re talking about from the father on the topic for us, Professor Stephen Seiler, which I’ll use throughout this essay. Have a read of his 2009 paper if you want to really geek out. In a nutshell, there are generally two main models of TID that have dominated the literature. These are namely the polarised (1) and the threshold (2) models of training.  The polarised model was first described within the training performed by the East German system from 1970-80, whereby a high volume of low-intensity training appeared balanced against regular application of high-intensity training bouts (~90% to >100% VO2max). This was partially confirmed in 2004 by Fiskerstrand & Seiler (1), who showed a “polarized” pattern of training also when they explained the training and performance characteristics of 28 international Norwegian rowers developing across the years 1970-2001. This polarised model is said to be described as performing about 75-80% of your training at a low intensity (<2 mM blood lactate), 5% at threshold intensity (~4 mM blood lactate), and 15-20% at high intensity  (>4 mM blood lactate) (3). This training organization contrasts the classic threshold model (~57% low intensity, 43% threshold, 0% high-intensity (4)) of endurance training, whereby large volumes of mid-zone threshold work is thought to be optimal (2). This former study on world class international rowers provided evidence to support the importance of the polarized training model for endurance athletes striving to be the best in the world, and subsequently has been largely adopted by athletes across many endurance sports. (5,6)

Iron distances races: Racing in the black hole

What’s very interesting about the polarized training method as it relates to Ironman, is that most of the research has been carried out in sports where race pace intensity is above the second (“anaerobic”) threshold. Sports like rowing 7 for example, (where much of the TID research has been done), is closer to VO2max intensity. To illustrate, Figure 2 shows an example of the typical intensity breakdown over a 2 km rowing race (split into the three-zone model), where the majority of time spent during the 6-8 min race is above the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Even in a cycling road race there would be substantial amounts of time spent in the low intensity bandwidth (below the first aerobic threshold, whilst sat in the peloton), alongside shorter times spent above the second threshold (closing gaps, making breaks etc.).

Figure 2: The typical heart rate intensity distribution of a 2 km rowing race. 24% at low intensity (it takes time for HR to rise), 34% at a moderate intensity (still rising) and 42% at a high intensity.

Comparatively, the intensity distribution of Ironman racing is vastly different, with most of the time being spent in the moderate intensity bandwidth. Figure 3 shows my HR distribution during the Taupo 70.3 event in December 2017. From this, its clear that most of the ~4h race duration is spent at a moderate exercise intensity. To take this a step further, we can look at my race for Ironman New Zealand 2017, where there is even more time spent in the moderate intensity heart rate bandwidth (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Time in Zone 70.3 Taupo bike (top: 2 hr 14 min) and run (bottom: 1 hr 18 min). Bike includes 2% low intensity, 72% moderate intensity and 26% high intensity. Comparatively, running includes 0% at low intensity, 54% at moderate intensity and 46% at high intensity.

When looking at Figures 3 and 4, keep in mind that the moderate intensity training bandwidth is quite large (145-160 b.min-1 cycling and 150-165 b.min-1 running). The Ironman distance mostly happens in the low end of this bracket (average and max HR for bike and run respectively = 145/157 and 151/163 b.min-1) while the 70.3 distance occurs near the top (154/161 and 164/176 b.min-1)

Figure 4: Time in Zone for full ironman (2017 Ironman NZ) bike (top: 4 hr 58 min) and run (bottom: 2 hr 55 min). Bike includes 25% at low intensity, 74% at moderate intensity and 0.2% at high intensity. Comparatively, running includes 4% at low intensity and 96% at moderate intensity and 0% at high intensity.

Pyramidal Model of Training Intensity Distribution

More recently, a number of retrospective studies have put forth another model of TID for cycling, (8) running, (9) and triathlon, (10) termed the “pyramidal” model. Here, most training is still carried out at low intensity, however there are decreasing proportions of threshold and high-intensity training performed. This is a model less discussed that many might not be familiar with. Indeed, we often assume that an athlete who is not polarized in their TID must be in the “threshold” model by default. However, published research has revealed this middle-ground model that we need to appreciate.

Exact defining percentage breakdowns of the Pyramidal model have yet to be clearly established, however this general implies ~25-30% and 5-10% of TID at moderate and high intensity training levels, respectively, with the balance being low intensity training (50-70%). (3) As such, within the pyramidal model of TID, we expect to see less training time at a low and high training intensity, and more time at moderate training intensity. From a specificity standpoint, this middle ground training is much closer to the demands of ironman racing (Figures 3 and 4). Thus, when race day approaches, and training sessions become more “specific” and closer to race intensity, it stands to reason that perhaps the Pyramidal model may particularly suit long course triathletes.

Figure 5: 1 week of training (7 January until 13 January). 64% <LT1, 25% LT1-LT2 and 11% >LT2

Figure 5, shows my TID during one week in the month of January 2018 (competition phase) before the New Zealand National Middle-Distance Champs. As we can see, my TID certainly fell in line with the Pyramidal model.

Take home points

For Ironman distance racing, or any sport preparation for that matter, we have to consider the principle of specificity. For Ironman, as we are still working in an aerobic event, building aerobic endurance is of key importance. Thus, however you’re skinning it in your Ironman training, a fundamental principle needs to be an aerobic foundation. Ideally, we should be working within a range of TID, that span across the polarized (80/20) and pyramidal (60/40) models, depending on the phase of the training cycle. For example, early season training might look more polarized, while pyramidal may appear to form, as we get closer to racing.

One final point, it that we must also acknowledge the role of athlete health (11) and the stress that training places on the autonomic nervous system (12,13) when substantial amounts of training time are performed above VT1. Thus, future research may want to consider describing the optimal durations of pyramidal and polarized training phases in the diets of Ironman athletes.

 

References

1.    Fiskerstrand A, Seiler KS. Training and performance characteristics among Norwegian international rowers 1970-2001. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2004;14:303-10.
2.    Seiler S. What is best practice for training intensity and duration distribution in endurance athletes? Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2010;5:276-91.
3.    Stoggl TL, Sperlich B. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes. Front Physiol 2015;6:295.
4.    Neal CM, Hunter AM, Brennan L, et al. Six weeks of a polarized training-intensity distribution leads to greater physiological and performance adaptations than a threshold model in trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2013;114:461-71.
5.    Laursen PB. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training? Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20 1-10.
6.    Seiler KS, Kjerland GO. Quantifying training intensity distribution in elite endurance athletes: is there evidence for an “optimal” distribution? Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006;16:49-56.
7.    Plews D, Laursen PB. Training intensity distribution over a four-year cycle in Olympic champion rowers: different roads lead to Rio. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 2017;In Press.
8.    Lucia A, Hoyos J, Pardo J, Chicharro JL. Metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations to endurance training in professional cyclists: a longitudinal study. Jpn J Physiol 2000;50:381-8.
9.    Esteve-Lanao J, San Juan AF, Earnest CP, Foster C, Lucia A. How do endurance runners actually train? Relationship with competition performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37:496-504.
10.    Neal CM, Hunter AM, Galloway SD. A 6-month analysis of training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in Ironman triathletes. J Sports Sci 2011;29:1515-23.
11.    Maffetone PB, Laursen PB. Athletes: Fit but Unhealthy? Sports Med Open 2015;2:24.
12.    Plews DJ, Laursen PB, Kilding AE, Buchheit M. Heart-rate variability and training-intensity distribution in elite rowers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2014;9:1026-32.
13.    Seiler S, Haugen O, Kuffel E. Autonomic recovery after exercise in trained athletes: intensity and duration effects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:1366-73

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Runners’ Toenail Problems: Do Triathletes Even Need Nails?

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Quick summary: If you’ve spent a lot of time training for triathlons, you may have experienced problems like black, thickened, or ingrown toenails. You may have lost toenails now and then as well. These issues affect the big toe most of all. Some runners and triathletes avoid these problems by having them surgically removed. Is that a smart idea? Do you really need your toenails?

Causes of toenail problems for triathletes

  • Ingrown toenails are caused by repeated stress that drives the toenail into the soft flesh of the toe, combined with growth of either the toenail or the skin of the toe. This can cause a lot of pain and a few visits to the doctor.
  • Black toenails are caused by repeated contact between the toenail and the shoe. This causes bleeding, and it may turn the toenail black. The blood can cause the toenail to separate from the toe, opening you up to bacterial and fungal infections before another toenail grows in its place.
  • Permanent toenail thickening occurs when damage to the root, or “matrix”, of the nail causes it to become deformed. The nail will grow according to the new shape of the root. It will often grow thicker and look grey or yellow, like a fungal infection. This condition is permanent and can harm your triathlon performance.

What happens if you have your toenails surgically removed?

The flesh underneath your toenails is very sensitive. However, if you have your toenails removed, the flesh normally grows thicker, tougher, and far less sensitive. If you have cosmetic concerns, you can add nail polish to this area. People won’t be able to tell the difference unless they’re near you. The doctor will use either a laser or a chemical, and the procedure is painless.

On the other hand, there are some people whose toes won’t create that protective layer of skin. You could be one of them. The only way to find out is to have your nails removed.

The verdict: Whether you have toenails or not won’t affect your running ability. An ingrown toenail will until you have it treated. A permanently thickened nail will also affect your speed and endurance, and that’s not treatable.

Your two options are prevention and surgery. As a triathlete, you’re going to have cosmetic issues. That’s just a fact. If you’re not into the idea of surgical removal, there are some steps you can take to minimize damage to your toenails.

  • Wear the correct size shoes. A shoe that fits well will prevent all the microtrauma that can cause bleeding under the nails.
  • Keep the nails well trimmed. If they’re even a little bit too long, they can cause shoe-related trauma on the inclines and declines.
  • Use skin lubricant. This will prevent a lot of soreness, bruising, and other problems caused by accumulated trauma. This is a method Dr Christopher Seglar, a San Francisco sports medicine podiatrist and triathlete, uses on long runs of 30 kilometres or more. His toes are fine on shorter runs. However, if you train a lot, you may want to use skin lubricant for those, too.

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Women Are Naturally More Fit Than Men, Study Shows

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Quick oxygen uptake places less strain on the body’s cells and is considered an important measure of aerobic fitness.

“The findings are contrary to the popular assumption that men’s bodies are more naturally athletic,” said Thomas Beltrame, lead author on the study.

The study compared oxygen uptake and muscle oxygen extraction between 18 young men and women of similar age and weight during treadmill exercise. Women consistently outperformed men with around 30 percent faster oxygen handling throughout the body.

“We found that women’s muscles extract oxygen from the blood faster, which, scientifically speaking, indicates a superior aerobic system,” said Richard Hughson, a professor in the Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, and Schlegel Research Chair in Vascular Aging and Brain Health at Waterloo.

By processing oxygen faster, women are less likely to accumulate molecules linked with muscle fatigue, effort perception and poor athletic performance.

“While we don’t know why women have faster oxygen uptake, this study shakes up conventional wisdom,” said Beltrame. “It could change the way we approach assessment and athletic training down the road.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Waterloo. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Thomas Beltrame, Rodrigo Villar, Richard L. Hughson. Sex differences in the oxygen delivery, extraction, and uptake during moderate-walking exercise transition. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2017; 42 (9): 994 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0097

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Should Triathletes Get Regular Heart Tests and Should You Care About Myocardial Fibrosis?

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Are triathletes at risk of myocardial fibrosis? New evidence has shown triathletes may be at increased risk of myocardial fibrosis (MF); a nasty condition where scarred or fibrotic tissue replaces heart muscle cells. A recent study out of Germany looked at 55 men and 30 women and found a clear link between MF and male triathletes.

While the study has limitations, it did make us wonder about how triathlon can adversely affect the heart.

Why you should care about myocardial fibrosis

‘Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a common phenomenon in the late stages of diverse cardiac diseases and is a predictive factor for sudden cardiac death,’ says an article by Freek et al in 2016.

So in other words, MF can kill you. But how?

Myocardial fibrosis can cause arrhythmia; a sometimes fatal abnormal heartbeat pattern. Whether the arrhythmia has caused your heart to beat too fast, too slow, too irregularly or too early; if you suffer from arrhythmia, you’re in trouble.

How does this study say triathlon causes myocardial fibrosis?

During high intensity, endurance events, systolic blood pressure increases. This increase may result in a greater myocardial mass, which may put an athlete at a higher risk of myocarditis; inflammation of the heart muscle.

If the heart becomes inflamed due to exercise often enough, it is believed it can lead to the heart replacing muscle with fibrotic tissue that isnt as spongy, responsive or powerful as normal heart tissue known as myocardial fibrosis.

How did they prove myocardial fibrosis?

The study used a contrast and examined it under MRI. Evidence of myocardial fibrosis was apparent in the left ventricle — the heart’s main pumping chamber — in 10 of 55 of the men, or 18 percent, but in none of the women.

Why don’t the women have myocardial fibrosis?

“Comparison of the sport’s history showed that females had a tendency to complete shorter distances compared to male triathletes. This supports the concept that blood pressure and race distances could have an impact on the formation of myocardial fibrosis,” said study leader Dr Starekova.

Sorry Dr, but we all know this isn’t true for female Ironman competitors who compete and train over massive distances. This seems to point to the fact the scientists really don’t know why more men were at risk than women.

Has myocardial fibrosis caused death in endurance athletes before?

Yes. One study showed the results of a post-mortem cardiac exam performed on a marathon runner who died suddenly. It found his death was caused by enlargement of his left ventricle and myocardial fibrosis. In this case, it was a series of fatal arrhythmias or irregular heartbeats that caused the sudden death of the athlete.

“Life-long, repetitive bouts of arduous physical activity resulted in the fibrous replacement of the myocardium, causing a pathological substrate for the propagation of fatal arrhythmias,” was the official summary.

In other words? The marathon runner’s heart had become stiffer, which lead to an irregular heartbeat that caused death.

Another study looked at the hearts of 51 healthy male Ironman athletes to see if any changes occurred. They found:

  • Those who trained at higher volumes had larger left ventricles
  • Those with significantly larger left ventricles (chambers of the heart) also had greater blood pressure at an aerobic or anaerobic threshold.

They recommended these athletes (who experienced higher blood pressure) should undertake interventions to prevent stiffening of the heart or MF.

Does triathlon definitely cause myocardial fibrosis?

No. The study only looked at 85 subjects which is definitely not enough to make solid conclusions, especially considering contrasting evidence.

A number of studies have disputed the link between triathlon and MF. Leschik and Spelsberg said, “The idea of exercise-induced cardiac disease was suggested by Heidbüchel and LaGerche but the data are controversial.”

In some athletes, studies have found left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis which causes arrhythmia, but in many others, these abnormalities were absent.

Should you be worried about your heart?

Despite all studies concluding further research is needed, we do know a few things:

Key Messages

  • Triathlon can cause changes in your heart and CAN cause MF
  • Triathlon can lead to cardiac arrest in men > 60 years old
  • Risk probability in ambitious triathletes >35 years old is high, so cardiac testing may be important
  • Those most at risk of developing cardiac changes (men training at large volumes) should be identified early through testing
  • Triathletes experience significant peaks in blood pressure and changes to their left ventricles are recommended to undertake a prevention program
  • Ideal training dosages that prevent cardiac changes from occurring is not yet known, but there may be a tipping point of systolic blood pressure that leads to MF

While the new study out of Germany does have some compelling evidence, the study group was small, and there is no cause for alarm. The recommendations that young pros should be screened may be of value though and could be something handy to remember for coaches of young, keen athletes.

 

 

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How Exercise Enhances The Brain – Benefits For The Busy Triathlete

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We all know exercise is good for our health, but new science tells us exercise is great for our brains too. Scientists have proven exercise can improve memory and learning in animals, but a new study out of Canada proves humans can improve memory and brain activity thanks to high-intensity exercise.

Previous studies showed exercise promotes ‘Miracle Gro’ for the brain

Last year, scientists at New York University’s Langone Medical Center decided to look at the impact of exercise on the brains of mice. They placed healthy mice into two groups; group one had a running wheel in their cage, while group two had no wheel. After a month in the cages, the scientists looked at the differences between the mice’s brains.

The exercise group showed higher levels of B.D.N.F, which is a protein some scientists label as ‘Miracle-Gro’ for the brain. This snazzy protein helps neurones grow and strengthens synapses which are the ways nerve impulses signal to each other.

Exercise ‘switches on’ a healthy brain protein

B.D.N.F is produced by a gene that occurs in all mice but was largely concealed in sedentary mice.

For those chubby mice that sat around all day, there was a thick barrier of molecules that surrounded this gene preventing it from being switched on.

In contrast, in the sporty mice, the barrier was flimsy, allowing the gene to switch on, producing more B.D.N.F to promote brain health and improve learning and memory.

If you’re getting lost in the acronyms, don’t worry; the key takeaway is that exercising improves your brain’s function overall.

Those findings are fairly general though, so new scientists wanted to look at memory improvements in humans.

New evidence shows memory improvement thanks to exercise

A new study in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience looks at how high-intensity exercise effects the memories of a group of ninety-five college students.

Scientists divided the students into three groups:

  1. Exercise only
  2. Exercise and cognitive training (combined)
  3. No exercise or cognitive training (control)

The exercise comprised of 20 minutes of high-intensity interval training at the university’s physiology lab three-times per week. High intensity was chosen as it a very “strong physical stimulus” which was thought to create the most cardiovascular change in young people.

What is brain training?

If you’re wondering what cognitive training is, you’re not the only one. In this study, scientists used general mental training consisting of memorising similar faces, then matching correct faces as they appeared randomly on a computer screen.

Why faces? The memory required to recognise and memorise details on the human face is a very specific, yet important type of memory. It was just one type of memory that could have been measured in the study.

What did they find after 6 weeks?

  • Everyone who exercised enjoyed better fitness (obviously…)
  • Almost everyone who exercised performed better on the memory test, including quickly differentiating between similar objects despite this not being part of the brain training
  • Those who’s fitness improved the most, experienced greatest memory enhancements

Biggest improvements in fitness saw other improvements

  • Individuals who enjoyed the greatest fitness improvements from the training also had higher levels of neural growth factors.
  • Those who enjoyed the biggest increase in fitness also enjoyed improvements in high-interference memory performance.

“In effect, more fitness resulted in stronger memories,” says Jennifer Heisz, an assistant professor at McMaster University who led the study. “The brain training adds to that effect, even for a type of memory that was not part of the training,” Heiz told The New York Times.

No fitness improvements show little memory improvement

In contrast, those who had the smallest improvements in fitness also had only slight improvements in memory. Dr Heisz thinks this may be because the exercise may have been too intense for these individuals. “It’s possible that they would have developed a better response with different and perhaps more-moderate exercise,” Heisz says.

How you can have better memory

It’s simple; add some memory tasks to your workouts before and after getting sweaty. “I would suggest memorising the details of a painting or landscape” — or perhaps a loved one’s face — before or after each workout, Heisz says. “It could provide broader memory benefits all around.”

Benefits for the busy triathlete

If you’re a busy triathlete juggling home life, your social life, training and work; this study proves you can enjoy benefits across multiple areas in your life by combining your efforts. Add a bit of mental stimulation before and after a workout, and you’ll feed your brain. Both studies prove this will not only enhance memory but also strengthen your brain as a whole.

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